2016
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A Novel Approach for Formability Prediction of Tailor Welded Blank
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2
Formability of Tailor Welded Blank (TWB) is an important parameter which limits this kind of blanks usage. A forming criterion for tailor welded blank is presented based on the analytical model in this research. This criterion suggests Limit Strength Ratio (LSR) and Limit Thickness Ratio (LTR) for forming limit of TWB. When thickness ratio or strength ratio in tailor welded blank is greater than LTR or LSR, formability will be limited and necking will happen sooner. The influence of thickness ratio on the formability of TWB has been investigated by experimental tests and Finite Element (FE) simulations, but strength ratio has just been studied by simulation. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that by the increase of thickness ratio and strength ratio, the formability will decrease and weld line movement will increase. The obtained results of the present study indicate that fracture happens in the thinner side of TWB and near to the weld line. Moreover, fracture line is parallel to weld line and the fracture position moves farther than weld line by thickness ratio decreasing. Simulation results have a good agreement with experimental results as well.
1

1
12


Rasoul
Safdarian
behbahan khatam alanbia university of technology
behbahan khatam alanbia university of technology
Iran
safdarian_rasool@yahoo.com


Mohamad Javad
Torkamany
Iranian National Center for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box: 14665576, Tehran, Iran
Iranian National Center for Laser Science
Iran
rasoolsaf@gmail.com
Tailor Welded Blank (TWB)
Limiting Thickness ratio (LTR)
Limiting Strength Ratio (LSR)
Weld line movement
[ [1] P. Auto/Steel Partnership. Tailor welded blank design and manufacturing manual. Auto/Steel Partnership, [S.l.], (1995). ##[2] M. Eisenmenger, K.K. Bhatt and M.F. Shi. Influence of laser welding parameters on formability and robustness of blank manufacturing : an application to a body side frame. Society of Automotive Engineers, New York, NY, ETATSUNIS, (1995). ##[3] M.A. Ahmetoglu, D. Brouwers, L. Shulkin, L. Taupin, G.L. Kinzel and T. Altan. Deep drawing of round cups from tailorwelded blanks. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 53 (1995) 68494. ##[4] F. Cayssials, An industrial application of specific forming limit curves for tailor welded blanks. Proceedings of the 2000 International Deep Drawing Research Group, North American Deep Drawing Research Group, (2000) 17–22. ##[5] B. Kinsey, Z. Liu and J. Cao. A novel forming technology for tailorwelded blanks. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 99 (2000) 14553. ##[6] B.L. Kinsey and J. Cao. An analytical model for tailor welded blank forming. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 125 (2003) 34451. ##[7] S. He, X. Wu and S.J. Hu. Formability enhancement for Tailorwelded blanks using blank holding force control. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 125 (2003) 4617. ## [8] R. Safdarian Korouyeh, H. Moslemi Naeini and G. Liaghat. Forming limit diagram prediction of tailorwelded blank using experimental and numerical methods. Journal of Materi Eng and Perform. 21 (2012) 205361. ##[9] R. Safdarian Korouyeh, H. Moslemi Naeini, M.J. Torkamany and G. Liaghat. Experimental and theoretical investigation of thickness ratio effect on the formability of tailor welded blank. Optics & Laser Technology. 51 (2013) 2431. ##[10] M.F. Shi, K.M. Pickett and K.K. Bhatt. Formability issues in the application of Tailor welded blank sheets. Society of Automotive Engineers, New York, NY, ETATSUNIS, (1993). ##[11] A.S.f.T.a.M. (ASTM), Metals test methods and analytical procedures. (1999) 78–98, 501–8. ##[12] S.S. Hecker. A cup test for assessing stretchability. Met. Eng. . 14 (1974) 30–6. ##[13] S.K. Panda, V.H. Baltazar Hernandez, M.L. Kuntz and Y. Zhou. Formability analysis of diodelaserwelded Tailored blanks of advanced highstrength steel sheet. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 40A (2009) 195567. ##[14] S.B. Levy, A comparison of empirical forming limit curves for low carbon steel with theoretical forming limit curves of ramaekers and bongaerts, IDDRG, (1996). ##[15] S.K. Panda, D.R. Kumar, H. Kumar and A.K. Nath. Characterization of tensile properties of tailor welded IF steel sheets and their formability in stretch forming. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 183 (2007) 32132. ##[16] R. Hill. A theory of the yielding and plastic flow of anisotropic metals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 193 (1948) 28197. ##[17] Abaqus User Guide, ABAQUS Analysis User's Manual.##]
Meshless analysis of casting process considering nonFourier heat transfer
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Casting is considered as a major manufacturing process. Thermal analysis of a solidifying medium is of great importance for appropriate design of casting processes. The conventional governing equation of a solidifying medium is based on the Fourier heat conduction law, which does not account for the phaselag between the heat flux and the temperature gradient. In this paper, the concept of phaselag during the phenomenon of solidification is investigated. This concept is considered by utilization of the hyperbolic heat conduction equation, known generally as the Maxwell–Cattaneo relation. In this way, the effect of finite heat wave speed on the thermal behavior of a solidifying medium is studied. In this context, some numerical example problems are analyzed with the meshless radial point interpolation method. The effect of the relaxation time on the thermal behavior of the solidifying medium is investigated. Moreover, the results of Fourier and nonFourier heat conduction equations are compared. It is observed that based on the specific solidification process and the amount of relaxation time, the results of the Fourier and nonFourier conduction laws can be quite different. The most prominent effect of the relaxation time is to alter the initiation of the solidification at each point.
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13
25


Amir
Khosravifard
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz
Iran
khosravifard@shirazu.ac.ir


M. R.
Hematiyan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz
Iran
mhemat@shirazu.ac.ir
Phasechange
nonFourier heat conduction
meshless radial point interpolation method
[ [1] A. Khosravifard and M.R. Hematiyan, Analysis of phasechange heat conduction problems by an improved CTMbased RPIM, Advances in Boundary Element techniques XIII, BETEQ 2012, 35 September, Prague, (2012). ##[2] R. Vertnik and B. Sarler, Meshless local radial basis function collocation method for convectivediffusive solid– liquid phase change problems, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 16 (2006) 617–640. ##[3] G. Kosec and B. Sarler, Solution of phase change problems by collocation with local pressure correction, CMES: computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, 47 (2009) 191–216. ## [4] R. Vertnik, M. Zaloznik and B. Sarler, Solution of transient directchill aluminium billet casting problem with simultaneous material and interphase moving boundaries by a meshless method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 30 (2006) 847–855. ##[5] L. Zhang, Y.M. Rong, H.F. Shen and T.Y. Huang, Solidification modeling in continuous casting by finite point method, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 192–193 (2007) 511–517. ##[6] L. Zhang L., H.F. Shen, Y.M. Rong and T.Y. Huang, Numerical simulation on solidification and thermal stress of continuous casting billet in mold based on meshless methods, Materials Science and Engineering A, 466 (2007) 71–78. ##[7] G. Zhihua, L. Yuanming, Z. Mingyi, Q. Jilin and Z. Shujuan, An element free Galerkin method for nonlinear heat transfer with phase change in Qinghai–Tibet railway embankment, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 48 (2007) 15–23. ##[8] H.S. Fang, K. Bao, J.A. Wei, H. Zhang, E.H. Wu and L. Zheng, Simulations of droplet spreading and solidification using an improved SPH model, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 55 (2009) 124–143. ##[9] M. Zhang, H. Zhang and L. Zheng, Application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to free surface and solidification problems, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 52 (2007) 299–314. ##[10] H. Yang and Y. He, Solving heat transfer problems with phase change via smoothed effective heat capacity and element free Galerkin methods, International Communication in Heat and Mass Transfer, 37 (2010) 385–392. ##[11] M. Alizadeh, S.A. Jenabali Jahromi and S.B. Nasihatkon, Applying finite point method in solidification modeling during continuous casting process, ISIJ International, 50 (2010) 411–417. ##[12] G. Kosec and B. Sarler, Meshless Approach to Solving Freezing with Natural Convection, Materials Science Forum, 649 (2010) 205–210. ##[13] B. Sarler, G. Kosec, A. Lorbicka and R. Vertnik, A meshless approach in solution of multiscale solidification modeling, Materials Science Forum, 649 (2010) 211–216. ##[14] H. Thakur, K.M. Singh and P.K. Sahoo, Phase change problems using the MLPG method, Numerical Heat Transfer: Part A, 59 (2011) 438–458. ##[15] G. Kosec, M. Zaloznik, B. Sarler and H. Combeau, A meshless approach towards solution of macrosegregation phenomena, Computers, Materials & Continua, 580 (2011) 1–27. ##[16] S.Y. Reutskiy, The method of approximate fundamental solutions (MAFS) for Stefan problems, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 36 (2012) 281–292. ##[17] R. Vertnik and B. Sarler, Solution of a continuous casting of steel benchmark test by a meshless method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 45 (2014) 45–61. ##[18] M. Kumar, S. Roy and S.S. Panda, Numerical simulation of continuous casting of steel alloy for different cooling ambiences and casting speeds using immersed boundary method, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, (2015), doi: 10.1177/0954405415596140. ##[19] S.L. Sobolev, The localnonequilibrium temperature field around the melting and crystallization front induced by picosecond pulsed laser irradiation, International Journal of Thermophysics, 17 (1996) 1089–1097. ##[20] A. Vedavarz, K. Mitra and S. Kumar, Hyperbolic temperature profiles for laser surface interactions, Journal of applied physics, 76 (1994) 5014–5018. ##[21] D.E. Glass, M.N. Ozisik and S.S. McRae, Formulation and solution of hyperbolic Stefan problem, Journal of applied physics, 70 (1991) 1190–1194. ##[22] M.A. AlNimr and M.A. Hader, Melting and Solidification under the Effect of the PhaseLag Concept in the Hyperbolic Conduction Equation, Heat Transfer Engineering, 22 (2001) 40–47. ##[23] H. Ahmadikia and A. Moradi, NonFourier phase change heat transfer in biological tissues during solidification, Heat and Mass Transfer, 48 (2012) 1559–1568. ## [24] A.M. Bakken, Cryopreserving Human Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells, Current stem cell research & therapy, 1 (2006) 47–54. ##[25] C.J. Hunt and P.M. Timmons, Cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cell lines, Methods in Molecular Biology, 368 (2007) 261–270. ##[26] N.B. Ishine, C. Rubinsky and Y. Lee, Transplantation of mammalian livers following freezing: vascular damage and functional recovery, Cryobiology, 40 (2000) 84–89. ##[27] R.M. Nerem, Tissue engineering: Confronting the transplantation crisis, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 214 (2000) 95–99. ##[28] SirajulIslam, R. Vertnik and B. Sarler, Local radial basis function collocation method along with explicit time stepping for hyperbolic partial differential equations, Applied Numerical Mathematics, 67 (2013), 136–151. ##[29] A. Khosravifard and M.R. Hematiyan, A new method for meshless integration in 2D and 3D Galerkin meshfree methods, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 34 (2010) 30–40. ##[30] A. Khosravifard, M.R. Hematiyan and L. Marin, Nonlinear transient heat conduction analysis of functionally graded materials in the presence of heat sources using an improved meshless radial point interpolation method, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35 (2011), 4157–4174. ##]
Simulation of deformation behavior of porous Titanium using Modified Gurson yield function
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2
In this research the stressstrain curve of porous Titanium, as a common material for biomedical application, was predicted using the mechanical properties of fully solid Titanium experimental data. Modified Gurson model (GursonTvergaardNeedleman (GTN) model) was used to predict the plastic response of porous Titanium in compaction. Different values of GTN parameters were used for different initial porosity. It was recognized that volume constancy assumption during plastic deformation of porous media cannot be satisfied due to both of changes in porosity and hydrostatic stress contribution on yielding. It was found that consideration of porosity variation is necessary during deformation for accurate modeling. Also, porous samples represented the same lateral expansion under less axial displacement relative to fully solid sample regarding the GTN model. The stress distribution of porous samples was different from solid sample considering the GTN model and this was predicted different shear banding. Evolution of porosity during deformation leads to linear like stress response in the plastic deformation regime.
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26
38


Ehsan
Ansari Basir
K. N. Toosi university of Technology
K. N. Toosi university of Technology
Iran
ebasir@kntu.ac.ir


Keivan
Narooei
K.N. Toosi university of Technology
K.N. Toosi university of Technology
Iran
knarooei@kntu.ac.ir
Modified Gurson model (GTN)
Porous Titanium
Finite element method
Plastic deformation
Compaction
[ 1. L.J. Gibson, Biomechanics of cellular solids, Journal of biomechanics, 38 (2005) 377–99. ##2. G. Ryan, A. Pandit and D.P. Apatsidis, Fabrication methods of porous metals for use in orthopaedic applications, Biomaterials, 27 (2006) 651–70. ##3. S.R. Nagaraja, S.G. Rakesh, J.K. Prasad, P.K. Barhai and G. Jagadeesh, Investigations on microblast wave assisted metal foil forming for biomedical applications, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 61 (2012) 1–7. ##4. A. Merdji, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, T. Achour, B. Serier, B. Ould Chikh and Z.O. Feng, Stress analysis in dental prosthesis, Computational Materials Science, 49 (2010) 126–133. ##5. J.D. Bobyn, R.M. Pilliar, H.U. Cameron and G.C. Weatherly, The optimum pore size for the fixation of poroussurfaced metal implants by the ingrowth of bone, Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 150 (1980) 263– 270. ## 6. H. Cameron, Sixyear results with a microporouscoated metal hip prosthesis, Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 208 (1986) 81–83. ##7. J. Bobyn, E. Mortimer, A. Glassman, C. Engh, J. Miller and C. Brooks, Producing and avoiding stress shielding: laboratory and clinical observations of noncemented total hip arthroplasty. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 274 (1992) 79–96. ##8. M. Schneider and H. Yuan, Experimental and computational investigation of cyclic mechanical behavior of sintered iron, Computational Materials Science, 57 (2012) 48–58. ##9. J. Kovacik, Correlation between Young’s modulus and porosity in porous materials, Journal of Materials Science Letters, 18 (1999) 1007–1010. ##10. J. Tirosh and D. Iddan, Forming analysis of porous materials, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 31 (1990) 949–965. ##11. H. Nakajima, Fabrication, properties and application of porous metals with directional pores, Progress in Materials Science, 52 (2007) 1091–1173. ##12. L.J. Gibson and M.F. Ashby, CellularSolid: Structure and properties, Cambridge University Press (1988). ##13. T. Imwinkelried, R. Biomaterials, S. Gmbh and C. Oberdorf, Mechanical properties of openpore Titanium foam, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A (2007). ##14. R. Singh, P.D. Lee, T.C. Lindley, C. Kohlhauser, C. Hellmich, M. Bram, T. Imwinkelried and R.J. Dashwood, Characterization of the deformation behavior of intermediate porosity interconnected Ti foams using microcomputed tomography and direct finite element modeling, Acta biomaterialia, 6 (2010) 2342–51. ##15. W. Niu, S. Gill, H. Dong and C. Bai, A twoscale model for predicting elastic properties of porous Titanium formed with spaceholders, Computational Materials Science, 50 (2010) 172–178. ##16. M.R. Karamooz Ravari, M. Kadkhodaei, M. Badrossamay and R. Rezaei, Numerical investigation on mechanical properties of cellular lattice structures fabricated by fused deposition modeling, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 88 (2014) 154–161. ##17. C.C. Huang and J.H. Cheng, Forging simulation of sintered powder compacts under various frictional conditions, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 44 (2002) 489–507. ##18. S.B. Biner and W.A. Spitzig, Densification of iron compacts with various initial porosities under hydrostatic pressure, Acta Metallurgica, 38 (1990) 603–610. ##19. V. Tvergaard, Influence of voids on shear band instabilities under plane strain conditions, International Journal of Fracture, 17 (1981) 389–407. ##20. V. Tvergaard and A. Needleman, Analysis of the cupcone fracture in a round tensile bar, Acta Metallurgica, 32 (1984) 157–169. ##21. R. Becker, A. Needleman, O. Richmond and V. Tvergaard, Void growth and failure in notched bars, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 36 (1988) 317–351. ##22. M. Abbasi, M. Ketabchi, H. Izadkhah, D.H. Fatmehsaria and A.N. Aghbash, Identification of GTN model parameters by application of response surface methodology, Procedia Engineering, 10 (2011) 415–420. ##23. W.A. Spitzig, R.E. Smelser and O. Richmond, The evolution of damage and fracture in iron compacts with various initial porosities, Acta Metallurgica, 36 (1988) 1201–1211. ##24. J. Simo and T. Hughes, Computational Inelasticity, Springer, New York, (2013). ##25. T. Belytschko, K. Wing and B. Moran, Nonlinear Finite Elements For Continua And Structures, John Wiley & Sons, (2014). ##]
Workability study in nearpritectic Sn5%Sb leadfree solder alloy processed by severe plastic deformation
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Prediction of the deformation characteristics is an important step to understand the workability of alloys during imposing large strains. In this research, severe plastic deformation of Sn5Sb solder alloy was carried out under different t deformation conditions, including the temperature range of 298, 330, 36, 400 K and die designs. The current study applies an experimentally validated finite element method (FEM) to establish a model for predicting workability in equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). To do this object, two ECAP dies were prepared with channel angle of 90 and the outer corner angle of 30O with and without choked angle in outlet channel. Angularly pressed Sn5Sb solder alloy were utilized for validating the proposed FEM model. Different parameters such as die angles (angle between the channels and the outer corner angle), pressing temperature and the die outlet channel geometry were studied using FEM simulation. In conclusion, experimentally verified numerical data were successfully used for proficient die design and process determination in the ECAP of tin alloy. The obtained results of hybrid FEM model were in acceptable conformity with experimental measurements.
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51


Hossein
Vafaeenezhad
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory (MPS &ndash; Lab), School of materials and metallurgical engineering, Iran University of science and technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran.
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory
Iran
hossein.vafa@gmail.com


S. H.
Seyedein
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory (MPS – Lab), School of materials and metallurgical engineering, Iran University of science and technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran.
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory
Iran
seyedein@iustac.ir


M. .R.
Aboutalebi
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory (MPS – Lab), School of materials and metallurgical engineering, Iran University of science and technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran.
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory
Iran
mrezb@iust.ac.ir


A. R.
Eivani
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory (MPS – Lab), School of materials and metallurgical engineering, Iran University of science and technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran.
Materials Processing Simulation Laboratory
Iran
aeivani@iust.ac.ir
Solder alloy
Finite element method
equal channel angular pressing
[ [1] R.Z. Valiev and T.G. Langdon, Principles of equalchannel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement, Progress in Materials Science, 51 (2006) 881981. ##[2] M. Furukawa, Z. Horita and T.G. Langdon, Factors influencing the shearing patterns in equalchannel angular pressing, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 332 (2002) 97109. ##[3] T.T. DeleAfolabi, M.A. Azmah Hanim, M. Norkhairunnisa, H.M. Yusoff and M.T. Suraya, Investigating the effect of isothermal aging on the morphology and shear strength of Sn5Sb solder reinforced with carbon nanotubes, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 649 (2015) 368374. ##[4] B.V. Patil, U. Chakkingal and T.S. Prasanna Kumar, Effect of geometric parameters on strain, strain inhomogeneity and peak pressure in equal channel angular pressing – A study based on 3D finite element analysis, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 17 (2015) 8897. ##[5] T.G. Langdon, M. Furukawa, M. Nemoto and Z. Horita, Using equalchannel angular pressing for refining grain size, Jom, 52 (2000) 3033. ##[6] M. Furukawa, Z. Horita, M. Nemoto and T. Langdon, Review: Processing of metals by equalchannel angular pressing, Journal of materials science, 36 (2001) 28352843. ##[7] K. Nakashima, Z. Horita, M. Nemoto and T.G. Langdon, Influence of channel angle on the development of ultrafine grains in equalchannel angular pressing, Acta Materialia, 46 (1998) 15891599. ##[8] C.G. Yao, B. Wang, D.Q. Yi and X.F. Ding, Artificial neural network modelling to predict hot deformation behaviour of as HIPed FGH4169 superalloy, Materials Science and Technology, 30 (2014) 11701176. ##[9] S.C. Yoon, H.G. Jeong, S. Lee and H.S. Kim, Analysis of plastic deformation behavior during back pressure equal channel angular pressing by the finite element method, Computational Materials Science, 77 (2013) 202207. ##[10] S. Dumoulin, H.J. Roven, J.C. Werenskiold and H.S. Valberg, Finite element modeling of equal channel angular pressing: Effect of material properties, friction and die geometry, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 410–411 (2005) 248251. ##[11] M. Shaeri, M. Salehi, S. Seyyedein, M. Abutalebi and J. Park, Characterization of microstructure and deformation texture during equal channel Angular pressing of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 576 (2013) 350357. ##[12] N.E. Mahallawy, F.A. Shehata, M.A.E. Hameed, M.I.A.E. Aal and H.S. Kim, 3D FEM simulations for the homogeneity of plastic deformation in Al–Cu alloys during ECAP, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527 (2010) 14041410. ##[13] F. Djavanroodi and M. Ebrahimi, Effect of die channel angle, friction and back pressure in the equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527 (2010) 12301235. ##[14] E. Cerri, P.P. De Marco and P. Leo, FEM and metallurgical analysis of modified 6082 aluminium alloys processed by multipass ECAP: Influence of material properties and different process settings on induced plastic strain, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209 (2009) 15501564. ##[15] F. Djavanroodi, H. Ahmadian, K. Koohkan and R. Naseri, Ultrasonic assistedECAP, Ultrasonics, 53 (2013) 10891096. ##[16] S.C. Baik, Y. Estrin, R.J. Hellmig, H.T. Jeong, H.G. Brokmeier and H.S. Kim, Modeling of texture evolution in copper under equal channel angular pressing, Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, 94 (2003) 11891198. ## [17] G.Y. Deng, C. Lu, L.H. Su, X.H. Liu and A.K. Tieu, Modeling texture evolution during ECAP of copper single crystal by crystal plasticity FEM, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 534 (2012) 6874. ##[18] R.B. Figueiredo, I.P. Pinheiro, M.T.P. Aguilar, P.J. Modenesi and P.R. Cetlin, The finite element analysis of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) considering the strain path dependence of the work hardening of metals, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 180 (2006) 3036. ##[19] E. Karaköse, M.F. Kılıçaslan and H. Çolak, Formation of novel ricelike intermetallic phases and changes in the mechanical, microstructural and electrical properties of Sn–5Sb alloys with addition Ag and Bi, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 655 (2016) 378388. ##[20] R. Mahmudi, A.R. Geranmayeh, M. Bakherad and M. Allami, Indentation creep study of leadfree Sn–5%Sb solder alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 457 (2007) 173179. ##[21] F.J. Humphreys and M. Hatherly, Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, Elsevier Science, (2012). ##[22] F. Djavanroodi, B. Omranpour and M. Sedighi, Artificial neural network modeling of ECAP process, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 28 (2013) 276281. ##[23] F. Yang and M.J.C. Li, Deformation behavior of tin and some tin alloys, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18 (2006) 191210. ##]
An investigation on the bond strength of aluminum strips in presence of brass mesh after cold roll bonding
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2
In the present study, the presence of brass mesh on the bond strength of aluminum (AA1050) strips in the cold roll bonding process was investigated. The influence of various process parameters including reduction in thickness, prerolling annealing, initial thickness of the strips, and postrolling annealing was also considered. After cold roll bonding process, peeling test was carried out and peeled surfaces were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis also, revealed that there was neither diffusion zone, nor formation of intermetallic at the interface of aluminum and brass wires after annealing at 643 K. It was found out that, by increasing the amount of reduction and initial thickness, the bond strength of the layers was increased. Furthermore, prerolling and postrolling annealing treatments at 643 K increased the bond strength, and the effect of postrolling annealing on the bond strength was more than prerolling annealing.
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52
63


Ehsan
Tolouei
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
e.tolouei@ma.iut.ac.ir


Mohammad Reza
Toroghinejad
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan
Iran
toroghi@cc.iut.ac.ir


Fakhreddin
Ashrafizadeh
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
ashrafif@cc.iut.ac.ir
: Bond strength
Cold roll bonding
Peeling test
Composite
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New geometry for TCP: severe plastic deformation of tubes
2
2
Since tubes are widely used for different industrial applications, processing of tubes by the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) method has been the target of different attempts. Among these attempts, development of SPD processes for tubes based on Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) has been more successful. As an illustration, Tube Channel Pressing (TCP) has been presented as an attractive SPD process since a relatively homogenous strain can be imposed on different sizes of tubes by this process. However, since die/mandrel geometry has a remarkable effect on the deformation behavior of tube in this process, more efforts must be focused on the optimization of the geometry of this process. This work is aimed to examine a new die geometry for TCP in order to reduce the strain heterogeneity and rupture risk of tube through the process. For this purpose, the effects of different geometrical parameters on the deformation behavior of tube during the process are studied using FEM simulations. In these simulations, the rupture risk of tube is considered using a damage criterion and then, results of simulations are compared with experiments. Results show that the new geometry of TCP imposes more intense strain, causes less strain heterogeneity and results in less risk of rupture of tube during the process. In addition, comparison of simulations and experiments shows that the applied simulation method can predict the rupture of tube during TCP. Besides this, different geometrical parameters of the new geometry of TCP are optimized by simulations considering dimensions of tube.
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Mohammad Hassan
Farshidi
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Iran
farshidi@um.ac.ir
Severe plastic deformation
Tube
FEM simulation
Strain distribution
Rupture prediction
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