Optimization and Investigation of the Initial Parameters Effects on Machining Forces in Aerial Graphite Part

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Mechanics, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Iran

2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran


Graphite has recently received a lot of attention due to its numerous applications as well as its unique structure. Machining and machining conditions optimization are very important in reducing machining forces among other benefits. In this study, the effect of machining parameters such as spindle speed, cutting depth and feed rate on the machining forces was investigated and the optimization of these conditions was done to minimize the forces. This research uses the design of experiments to optimize the initial parameters to minimize machining forces. These experiments are based on the response surface method and analysis of variances used to identify the most effective factors in machining forces. The values of the primary parameters that provide the experiments design software are considered to be the spindle speed between 1000 and 3000 rpm, the feed rate between 1000 and 3000 mm/min, and the cutting depth between 3 and 9 mm. The results show that the machining forces increase by increasing the cutting depth and feed rate and decrease by increasing the spindle speed. The results obtained from the optimization also indicate that the machining forces reduced to their minimum value at the feed rate of 318.2072 mm/min, the cutting depth of 0.9546 mm and the spindle speed of 2356.7439 rpm.


[1]    M. Alauddin, M.A. El Baradie, M.S.J. Hashmi, Computer-aided analysis of a surface-roughness model for end milling, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 55(2) (1995) 123-127.
[2]    N.S.K. Reddy, P.V. Rao, Experimental investigation to study the effect of solid lubricants on cutting forces and surface quality in end milling, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 46(2) (2006) 189-198.
[3]     S. Kalpakjian, S.R. Schmid, Manufacturing engineering and technology, International, Fourth ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2001, pp.536-681.
[4]    T. Lin, B. Chananda, Quality improvement of an injection-molded product using design of experiments: a case study, Quality Engineering, 16(1) (2003) 99-104.
[5]    I. Puertas, C.J. Luis, A study of optimization of machining parameters for electrical discharge machining of boron carbide, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 19(6) (2004) 1041-1070.
[6]    G.A. Jones, On the tribological behaviour of mechanical seal face materials in dry line contact: Part II. Bulk ceramics, diamond and diamond-like carbon films, Wear, 256(3-4) (2004) 433-455.
[7]    G. Cabral, J. Gäbler, J. Lindner, J. Grácio, R. Polini, A study of diamond film deposition on WC–Co inserts for graphite machining: effectiveness of SiC interlayers prepared by HFCVD, Diamond and Related Materials, 17(6) (2008) 1008-1014.
[8]    G. Cabral, P. Reis, R. Polini, E. Titus, N. Ali, J.P. Davim, J. Grácio, Cutting performance of time-modulated chemical vapour deposited diamond coated tool inserts during machining graphite, Diamond and Related Materials, 15(10) (2006) 1753-1758.
[9]    G. Cabral, P. Reis, E. Titus, J.C. Madaleno, J.P. Davim, J. Gracio, M. Jackson, Impact of surface roughness of diamond coatings on the cutting performance when dry machining of graphite, International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 15(2) (2008) 121-152.
[10]  F.A. Almeida, J. Sacramento, F.J. Oliveira, R.F. Silva, Micro-and nano-crystalline CVD diamond coated tools in the turning of EDM graphite, Surface and Coatings Technology, 203(3-4) (2008) 271-276.
[11]  F. Klocke, W. König, Fertigungsverfahren: Drehen, Fräsen, Bohren, Springer, Berlin, 2008. 
[12]  V.P. Astakhov, S.V. Shvets, M.O.M. Osman, Chip structure classification based on mechanics of its formation, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 71(2) (1997) 247-257.
[13]  X. Lei, L. Wang, B. Shen, F. Sun, Z. Zhang, Comparison of chemical vapor deposition diamond-, diamond-like carbon-and TiAlN-coated microdrills in graphite machining, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 227(9) (2013) 1299-1309.
[14]  Y. Xu, K. Chen, S. Wang, S. Chen, C. Zhu, X. Yu, Performance of AlTiN-and diamond-coated carbide tools in dry high-speed milling of electro discharge machining graphite, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 232(5) (2018) 766-775.
[15]  D. Huo, C. Lin, K. Dalgarno, An experimental investigation on micro machining of fine-grained graphite, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 72 (2014) 943-953.
[16]  J. Niu, C. Huang, R. Su, B. Zou, J. Wang, Z. Liu, C. Li, Study on surface integrity of compacted graphite iron milled by cemented carbide tools and ceramic tools, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 103 (2019) 4123-4134.
[17]  B. Gugulothu, G.K.M. Rao, D.H. Rao, Influence of drinking water and graphite powder concentration on electrical discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Materials Today: Proceedings, 27 (2020) 294-300.
[18]  J. Lu, Z. Zhang, X. Yuan, J. Ma, S. Hu, B. Xue, X. Liao, Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness for compacted graphite cast iron by analyzing covariance function of Gaussian process regression, Measurement, 157 (2020) 107578.
[19]  Y. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wei, X. Liao, Z. Xiao, Modeling and optimization of high-grade compacted graphite iron milling force and surface roughness via response surface methodology, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 16(1) (2018) 50-57.
[20]  E.V. Oliveira, F.A. Costa, R.A. Raimundo, C.S. Lourenço, M.A. Morales, S.N. Mathaudhu, U.U. Gomes, Effect of milling time in characteristics of the powder Cu-5wt.% graphite, Advanced Powder Technology, 33(1) (2022) 103360.
[21]  D. Yang, Q. Guo, Z. Wan, Z. Zhang, X. Huang, Surface roughness prediction and optimization in the orthogonal cutting of graphite/polymer composites based on artificial neural network, Processes, 9(10) (2021) 1858.
[22]  E. Daneshfar, M. Amini, M.M. Doustdar, H. Fazeli, Numerical and experimental investigation of motor pressure effect on thermochemical erosion of graphite nozzle in solid fuel engines, International Journal of Engineering, 32(11) (2019) 1656-1664.
[23]  M. Sakvand, M. Shojaie-Bahaabad, L. Nikzad, Effect of graphite addition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of HfB2-SiC composites prepared by the SPS method, International Journal of Engineering, 35(10) (2022) 1867-1876.