M. Geetha, A.K. Singh, R. Asokamani, A.K. Gogia, Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants–a review, Progress in Materials Science, 54(3) (2009) 397-425.
 S.H. Teoh, Fatigue of biomaterials: a review, International Journal of Fatigue, 22(10) (2000) 825-837.
 L.R. Saitova, H.W. Höppel, M. Göken, I.P. Semenova, G.I. Raab, R.Z. Valiev, Fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained Ti–6Al–4V ‘ELI’ alloy for medical applications, Materials Science and Engineering:A, 503(1-2) (2009) 145-147.
 R.K. Nalla, R.O. Ritchie, B.L. Boyce, J.P. Campbell, J.O. Peters, Influence of microstructure on high-cycle fatigue of Ti-6Al-4V: Bimodal vs. lamellar structures, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 33(3) (2002) 899-918.
 S. Bauer, P. Schmuki, K. Von Der Mark, J. Park, Engineering biocompatible implant surfaces: Part I: Materials and surfaces, Progress in Materials Science, 58(3) (2013) 261-326.
 K. Čolić, A. Sedmak, K. Legweel, M. Milošević, N. Mitrović, Ž. Mišković, S. Hloch, Experimental and numerical research of mechanical behaviour of titanium alloy hip implant, Tehnički vjesnik, 24(3) (2017) 709-713.
 K.S. Katti, Biomaterials in total joint replacement, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 39(3) (2004) 133-42.
 M. Balazic, J. Kopac, M.J. Jackson, W. Ahmed, Titanium and titanium alloy applications in medicine, International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials, 1(1) (2007) 3-34.
 V.S. de Viteri, E. Fuentes, Titanium and titanium alloys as biomaterials, Tribology-Fundamentals and Advancements, 1(5) (2013) 154-181.
 H.J. Rack, J.I. Qazi, Titanium alloys for biomedical applications, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 26(8) (2006) 1269-1277.
 S.A. Shaik, K. Bose, H.P. Cherukuri, A study of durability of hip implants, Materials & Design, 42 (2012) 230-237.
 R. Turner, J. Antonic, N. Warnken, 3D Forging simulation of a multi-partitioned titanium alloy billet for a medical implant, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 3(3) (2019) 69.
 S.H.R. Torabi, S. Alibabaei, B. Barooghi Bonab, M.H. Sadeghi, Gh. Faraji, Design and optimization of turbine blade perform forging using RSM and NSGA II, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 28(6) (2017) 1409-1419.
 J. Cai, F. Li, T. Liu, A new approach of preform design based on 3D electrostatic ﬁeld simulation and geometric transformation” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 56(5) (2011) 579-588.
 V. Alimirzaloo, M.H. Sadeghi, F.R. Biglari, Optimization of the forging of aerofoil blade using the ﬁnite element method and fuzzy Pareto based genetic algorithm, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 26(6) (2012) 1801-1810.
 S. Bruschi, G. Buffa, A. Ducatoa, L. Fratini, A. Ghiotti, Phase evolution in hot forging of dual phase titanium alloys: Experiments and numerical analysis, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 20 (2015) 382-388.
 R. Sethy, L. Galdos, J. Mendiguren, E. Sáenz de Argandoña, Friction and heat transfer coefficient determination of titanium alloys during hot forging conditions, Advanced Engineering Materials, 19(6) (2017) 1600060.
 V. Alimirzaloo, F.R. Biglari, M.H. Sadeghi, Numerical and experimental investigation of preform design for hot forging of an aerofoil blade, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 225(7) (2011) 1129-1139.
 S.K. Choi, M.S. Chun, C.J. Van Tyne, Y.H. Moon, Optimization of open die forging of round shapes using FEM analysis, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 172(1) (2006) 88-95.
 D.C. Montgomery, Design and analysis of experiments, John wiley & sons, 2017.
 V. Ranatunga, J.S. Gunasekera, W.G. Frazierand, K.D. Hur, Use of UBET for design of flash gap in closed-die forging, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 111(1-3) (2001) 107-112.
 G. Ranjbari, A. Doniavi, M. Shahbaz, R. Ebrahimi, Effect of processing parameters on the strain inhomogeneity and processing load in vortex extrusion of Al–Mg–Si alloy, Metals and Materials International, 27(4) (2021) 683-690.