Application of Friction Stir Processing (FSP) as a Cladding Method to Produce AA2024-AA1050 Multi-layer Sheets

Authors

College of Engineering, University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract

Friction stir processing (FSP) was used as a cladding method for the fabrication of a AA2024 clad layer on a AA1050 sheet. Crossover multi pass FSP with 50% overlap was considered as the cladding method. Effects of the number of FSP passes and post heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of clad layers were evaluated. Microstructural evolutions during the FSP and heat treatment were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that a defect free clad layer and a uniform metallurgical interface between the clad layer and base material can be achieved by the FSP. Moreover, clad layers exhibited higher hardness values in comparison to the base material. T4 Heat treatment of the FSPed samples resulted in comparatively high hardness values after natural aging. The highest hardness value of about 160 HV was achieved after heat treatment of the sample obtained from 3 intersecting FSP passes. Tensile strength of clad layers increased to 317 MPa after three intersecting FSP passes, compared to about 70 MPa of Al substrate.

Keywords


[1] Z. Ahmad,  Aluminium Alloys - New Trends in Fabrication and Applications, first edition, In Tech, United Kingdom, (2012) 48-97.

[2] P. Rambabu, N. Eswara Prasad, V.V. Kutumbarao, R.J.H. Wanhill, Aluminium Alloys for Aerospace Applications. In: Prasad N., Wanhill R. (eds) Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies. Indian Institute of Metals Series. Springer, Singapore, (2017) 29-52.

[3] F. Casarotto, A.J. Franke R. Franke, Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, edited by Jason Rowe, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 109 (2012).

[4] Sergio Correia, Vitor Anes, Luis Reis, Effect of surface treatment on adhesively bonded aluminium-aluminium joints regarding aeronautical structures, Engineering Failure Analysis, 84 (2018) 34-45.

[5] Y. Chi, G. Gu, H. Yu, C. Chen, Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 100 (2018) 23-37.

[6] W. Zhang, H. Ding, M. Cai, W. Yang, J. Li, Ultra-grain refinement and enhanced low-temperature superplasticity in a friction stir-processed Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 727 (2018) 90-96.

[7]H. Eskandari, R. Taheri, F. Khodabakhshi, Friction-stir processing of an AA8026-TiB2-Al2O3 hybrid nanocomposite: Microstructural developments and mechanical properties, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 660 (2016) 84-96.

[8] M. Balakrishnan, I. Dinaharan, R. Palanivel, R. Sathiskumar, Effect of friction stir processing on microstructure and tensile behavior of AA6061/Al3Fe cast aluminum matrix composites, Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2019) in press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.01.211.

[9] Z. Ma, Friction Stir Processing Technology: A Review, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 39(3) (2008) 642-658.

[10] O.S. Salih, H. Ou, W. Sun, D.G. McCartney, A review of friction stir welding of aluminium matrix composites, Materials & Design, 86 (2015) 61-71.

[11] G. Buffa, D. Baffari, A. Di Caro, L. Frantini, Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium–magnesium joints: Sheet mutual position effects, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 20 (2015) 271−279.

[12] Y. Yong, Z. Da-tong, Q. Cheng, Z. Wen, Dissimilar friction stir welding between 5052 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 20 (2010) 619−623.

[13] F. Liu, Q. Liu, C. Huang, K. Yang, C. Yang, L. Ke, Microstructure and corrosion resistance of AZ80/Al composite plate fabricated by friction stir processing, Material Science Forum, 747−748 (2013) 313−319.

[14] A.K. Lakshminarayanan, V.E. Annamalai, Fabrication and performance evaluation of dissimilar magnesium–aluminium alloy multi-seam friction stir clad joints, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 27(1) (2017) 25-35.

[15] A. Alavi Nia, H. Omidvar, S.H. Nourbakhsh,  Effects of an overlapping multi-pass friction stir process and rapid cooling on the mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy, Materials and Design, 58 (2014) 298-304.

[16] Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials, ASTM International, (2010).

[17] J. Gandra, R.M. Miranda, P. Vilaça, Effect of overlapping direction in multi-pass friction stir processing, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528 (16–17) (2011) 5592-5599.

[18] T.R. McNelley, S. Swaminathan, J.Q. Su, Recrystallization mechanisms during friction stir welding/processing of aluminum alloys, Scripta Materialia, 58 (5) (2008) 349-354.

[19] L. John Baruch, R. Raju, V. Balasubramanian, A. G. Rao, I. Dinaharan, Influence of Multi-pass Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Die Cast Al–7Si–3Cu Aluminum Alloy, Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters), 29(5) (2016) 431-440.

[20] K.V. Jata, S.L. Semiatin, Continuous  dynamic recrystallization during friction stir welding of high strength aluminum alloys, Scripta Materialia, 43 (2000) 743-749.

[21] N. Nadammal, S.V. Kailas, J. Szpunar, S. Suwas, Restoration Mechanisms During the Friction Stir Processing of Aluminum Alloys, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46 (7) (2015) 2823-2828.

[22] M.L. Santella, T. Engstrom, D. Storjohann, T.Y. Pan, Effects of friction stir processing on mechanical properties of the cast aluminum alloys A319 and A356, Scripta Materialia, 53 (2) (2005) 201-206.

 [23] A. Kumar, S.K. Sharma, K. Pal, S. Mula, Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructural Evolution, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Al 7075 Alloy, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 26 (3) (2017) 1122-1134.

[24] D. M. Sekban, S. M. Aktarer, H. Shang, P. Xue, Z. Ma, G. Purcek, Microstructural and Mechanical Evolution of a Low Carbon Steel by Friction Stir Processing, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 48 (2017) 3869-3879.

 [25] D. Ghanbari, M. Kasiri Asgarani, K. Amini, F. Gharavi, Influence of heat treatment on mechanical properties and microstructure of the Al2024/SiC composite produced by multi–pass friction stir processing, Measurement, 104 (2017) 151-158.