Multi-response Optimization of the Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Al7075-T6 Deposition Process on Al2024-T351 by Friction Surfacing Using RSM and the Desirability Approach

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maragheh, Iran

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, Canada 1100 Notre-Dame West, Montreal, Canada

5 Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden



Coating plays a significant role in surface engineering, which leads to the improvement of the mechanical and metallurgical properties of products. It also brings about economic benefits thanks to the cost savings of the improved properties of the surface of a product in particular. Friction surfacing is a relatively new way to create a homogeneous, fine-grained coating with amended resistance to wear and corrosion. In this study, the deposition of Al7075-T6 coating on Al2024-T351 substrates is investigated. Response surface methodology is implemented to study the effects of the rotational speed, axial force, and feed rate on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the specimens. Coating width, coating thickness, ultimate tensile strength, and grain size of coating are considered as the output responses. The input parameters are optimized to attain a wider and thicker coating with higher ultimate tensile strength and of course smaller grain size. Results display the joining of two materials without any porosity at the interface. Moreover, an entirely fine-grained homogeneous microstructure of the deposition is observed. Furthermore, the average grain size of the deposition is diminished by 65% compared to the consumable rod.


[1] H. Klopstock, A. R. Neelands, An improved method of joining or welding metals, British Patent specification (1941) 572789.
[2] M. Moradi, A. Mohazabpak, Statistical modelling and optimization of laser percussion micro-drilling on Inconel 718 sheet using response surface methodology (RSM), Lasers in Engineering 39 (4-6) (2018) 313-331.
[3] M. Azadi, S. Azadi, F. Zahedi, M. Moradi, Multidisciplinary optimization of a car component under NVH and weight constraints using RSM, ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 13-19 November 2009, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA. 15: Sound, Vibration and Design 315-319.
[4] V. I. Vitanov, N. Javaid, D. J. Stephenson, Application of response surface methodology for the optimisation of micro friction surfacing process, Surface and Coatings Technology 204(21) (2008) 3501-3508.
[5] V. Sugandhi, V. Ravishankar, Optimization of friction surfacing process parameters for aa1100 aluminum alloy coating with mild steel substrate using response surface methodology (RSM) technique, Modern Applied Science 6(2) (2012) 69-80.
[6] H. Sakihama, H. Tokisue, K. Katoh, Mechanical properties of friction surfaced 5052 aluminum alloy, Materials Transactions 44(12) (2003) 2688-2694.
[7] H. Tokisue, K. Katoh, T. Asahina, T. Usiyama, Mechanical properties of 5052/2017 dissimilar aluminum alloys deposit by friction surfacing, Materials Transactions 47(3) (2006) 874-882.
[8] J. Gandra, D. Pereira, R. M. Miranda, R. J. C. Silva, P. Vilaça, Deposition of AA6082-T6 over AA2024-T3 by friction surfacing-Mechanical and wear characterization, Surface and Coatings Technology 223 (2013) 32-40.

[9] H. K. Rafi, G. J. Ram, G. Phanikumar, K. P. Rao, Microstructural evolution during friction surfacing of tool steel H13, Materials & Design 32(1) (2011) 82-87.
[10] D. Nakama, K. Katoh, H. Tokisue, Some characteristics of AZ31/AZ91 dissimilar magnesium alloy deposit by friction surfacing, Materials Transactions 49(5) (2008) 1137-1141.
[11] J. Gandra, R. M. Miranda, P. Vilaça, Performance analysis of friction surfacing, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212(8) (2012) 1676-1686.
[12] H. K. Rafi, G. J. Ram, G. Phanikumar, K. P. Rao, Friction surfaced tool steel (H13) coatings on low carbon steel: A study on the effects of process parameters on coating characteristics and integrity, Surface and Coatings Technology 205(1) (2010) 232-242.
[13] H. K. Rafi, G. J. Ram, G. Phanikumar, K. P. Rao, Friction surfacing of austenitic stainless steel on low carbon steel: Studies on the effects of traverse speed, In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering (Vol. 2) (2010).
[14] R. H. Meyers, D. C. Montgomery, Response surface methodology, Process and Product Optimisation Using Design Experiments, second ed. (2002) Willey, New York, NY.
[15] M. S. Meiabadi, A. Kazerooni, M. Moradi, Numerical analysis of laser assisted titanium to polyimide welding using statistical approach, International Journal of Laser Science: Fundamental Theory and Analytical Methods 1(2) (2018) 185-205.
[16] M. Moradi, H. Abdollahi, Statistical modelling and optimization of the laser percussion microdrilling of thin sheet stainless steel, Journal of lasers in Engineering 40 (4-6) (2018) 375-393.
[17] M. Moradi, O. Mehrabi, T. Azdast, Kh. Y. Benyounis, Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate, Optics & Laser Technology 96C (2017) 208–218.
[18] H. Abdollahi, R. Mahdavinejad, M. Ghambari, M. Moradi, Investigation of green properties of iron/jet-milled grey cast iron compacts by response surface method, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 228(4) (2014) 493-503.
[19] M. Moradi, M. Karami Moghadam, High power diode laser surface hardening of AISI 4130; statistical modelling and optimization, Optics & Laser Technology 111 (2019) 554-570.
[20] M. S. Moradi, S. Meiabadi, A. Kaplan, 3D Printed Parts with Honeycomb Internal Pattern by Fused Deposition Modelling; Experimental Characterization and Production Optimization, Metals and Materials International 25 (5) (2019) 1312-1325.