Controlling the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel by Intercritical Annealing and Subcritical Tempering

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

10.22099/ijmf.2020.36665.1151

Abstract

The effects of intercritical annealing and subcritical tempering on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of mild steel were studied. It was revealed that intercritical annealing followed by quenching resulted in the development of a ferritic-martensitic dual phase (DP) microstructure with high tensile strength, disappearance of the yield-point phenomenon, superior work-hardening behavior, and decreased corrosion resistance. Subsequent tempering of the intercritically annealed steel resulted in the formation of carbide particles in a tempered martensitic microstructure, which led to the decline of the strength and hardness, reappearance of the yield-point elongation, and enhanced corrosion resistance. Accordingly, this work demonstrated the possibility of controlling the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of commercial mild steels by simple heat treatments.

Keywords


[1] Z. Nasiri, S. Ghaemifar, M. Naghizadeh, H. Mirzadeh, Thermal mechanisms of grain refinement in steels: A review, Metals and Materials International, in press, (2020) DOI: 10.1007/s12540-020-00700-1.
[2] J. Zhang, H. Di, Y. Deng, R.D.K. Misra, Effect of martensite morphology and volume fraction on strain hardening and fracture behavior of martensite–ferrite dual phase steel, Materials Science and Engineering A 627 (2015) 230-240.
[3] M. Nouroozi, H. Mirzadeh, M. Zamani, Effect of microstructural refinement and intercritical annealing time on mechanical properties of high-formability dual phase steel, Materials Science and Engineering A 736 (2018) 22-26.
[4] D. Das, P.P. Chattopadhyay, Influence of martensite morphology on the work-hardening behavior of high strength ferrite–martensite dual-phase steel, Journal of Materials Science 44 (2009) 2957-2965.
[5] S. Nikkhah, H. Mirzadeh, M. Zamani, Fine tuning the mechanical properties of dual phase steel via thermomechanical processing of cold rolling and intercritical annealing, Materials Chemistry and Physics 230 (2019) 1-8.
[6] H. Azizi-Alizamini, M. Militzer, and W.J. Poole, Formation of ultrafine grained dual phase steels through rapid heating, ISIJ International 51 (2011) 958-964.
[7] A.H. Jahanara, Y. Mazaheri, M. Sheikhi, Correlation of ferrite and martensite micromechanical behavior with mechanical properties of ultrafine grained dual phase steels, Materials Science and Engineering A 764 (2019) 138206.
[8] M. Soleimani, H. Mirzadeh, C. Dehghanian, Effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance of low carbon steel, Materials Research Express 7 (2020) 016522.
[9] M. Calcagnotto, D. Ponge, and D. Raabe, Effect of grain refinement to 1 μm on strength and toughness of dual-phase steels, Materials Science and Engineering A 527 (2010) 7832-7840.
[10] N. Nakada, Y. Arakawa, K.S. Park, T. Tsuchiyama, S. Takaki, Dual phase structure formed by partial reversion of cold-deformed martensite, Materials Science and Engineering A 553 (2012) 128-133.
[11] Y.G. Deng, Y. Li, H. Di, R.D.K. Misra, Effect of Heating Rate during Continuous Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Dual-Phase Steel, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 28 (2019) 4556-4564.
[12] N. Ormsuptave, V. Uthaisangsuk, Modeling of bake-hardening effect for fine grain bainite-aided dual phase steel, Materials and Design 118 (2017) 314-329.
[13] A. Ramazani, S. Bruehl, T. Gerber, W. Bleck, U. Prahl, Quantification of bake hardening effect in DP600 and TRIP700 steels, Materials and Design 57 (2014) 479-486.
[14] N. Ormsuptave, V. Uthaisangsuk, Effect of fine grained dual phase steel on bake hardening properties, Steel Research International 88 (2017) 1600150.
[15] M. Mazinani, W.J. Poole, Effect of martensite plasticity on the deformation behavior of a low-carbon dual-phase steel, Metallurgical and materials transactions A 38 (2007) 328-339.
[16] T. Waterschoot, K. Verbeken, Tempering kinetics of the martensitic phase in DP steel, ISIJ international 46 (2006) 138-146.
[17] N. Fonstein, M. Kapustin, N. Pottore, I. Gupta, O. Yakubovsky, Factors that determine the level of the yield strength and the return of the yield-point elongation in low-alloy ferrite-martensite steels, The Physics of Metals and Metallography 104 (2007) 315-323.
[18] Q. Han, A. Asgari, P.D. Hodgson, N. Stanford, Strain partitioning in dual-phase steels containing tempered martensite, Materials Science and Engineering A 611 (2014) 90-99.
[19] H. Li, S. Gao, Y. Tian, D. Terada, A. Shibata, N. Tsuji, Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of ferrite and martensite dual phase steel, Materials Today: Proceedings 2 (2015) S667-S671.
[20] H. Mirzadeh, M. Alibeyki, M. Najafi, Unraveling the initial microstructure effects on mechanical properties and work-hardening capacity of dual phase steel, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 48 (2017) 4565-4573.
[21] B. Gao, X. Chen, Z. Pan, J. Li, Y. Ma, Y. Cao, M. Liu, Q. Lai, L. Xiao, H. Zhou, A high-strength heterogeneous structural dual-phase steel, Journal of Materials Science 54 (2019) 12898-12910.
[22] T. Dutta, S. Dey, S. Datta, D. Das, Designing dual-phase steels with improved performance using ANN and GA in tandem, Computational Materials Science 157 (2019) 6-16.
[23] M. Alibeyki, H. Mirzadeh, M. Najafi, A. Kalhor, Modification of Rule of Mixtures for Estimation of the Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steel, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 26 (2017) 2683-2688.
[24] M. Soleimani, H. Mirzadeh, C. Dehghanian, Unraveling the Effect of Martensite Volume Fraction on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Low Carbon Dual Phase Steel, Steel Research International 91 (2020) 1900327.
[25] Y. Kayali, B. Anaturk, Investigation of electrochemical corrosion behavior in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution of boronized dual-phase steel, Materials and Design 46 (2013) 776-783.
[26] T. Allam, M. Abbas, Mechanical Properties, Formability, and Corrosion Behavior of Dual Phase Weathering Steels Developed by an Intercritical Annealing Treatment, Steel Research International 86 (2015) 231-240.
[27] S. Saadatkia, H. Mirzadeh, J.M. Cabrera, Hot deformation behavior, dynamic recrystallization, and physically-based constitutive modeling of plain carbon steels, Materials Science and Engineering A 636 (2015) 196-202.
[28] G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, third ed., McGraw-Hill, 1988.
[29] G. Krauss, Tempering of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels: assessment and challenges, Steel Research International 88 (2017) 1700038.
[30] A. Bag, K.K. Ray, E.S. Dwarakadasa, Influence of martensite content and morphology on tensile and impact properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 30 (1999) 1193-1202.
[31] G. Krauss, Steels processing, structure, and performance, 2nd ed, ASM International, 2015.
[32] S. Gündüz, Effect of chemical composition, martensite volume fraction and tempering on tensile behaviour of dual phase steels, Materials letters 63 (2009) 2381-2383.
[33] Y.C. Lin, G. Liu, M.S. Chen, J.L. Zhang, Z.G. Chen, Y.Q. Jiang, J. Li, Corrosion resistance of a two-stage stress-aged Al–Cu–Mg alloy: Effects of external stress, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 661 (2016) 221-230.
[34] Y.C. Lin, G. Liu, M.S. Chen, Y.C. Huang, Z.G. Chen,  X. Ma, Y.Q. Jiang, J. Li, Corrosion resistance of a two-stage stress-aged Al–Cu–Mg alloy: Effects of stress-aging temperature, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 657 (2016) 855-865.
[35] O. Kele┼čtemur, M. Aksoy, S. Yildiz, Corrosion behavior of tempered dual-phase steel embedded in concrete, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials 16 (2009) 43-50.